The city of Toledo is situated in the center of Spain, in 70 km in the southwest of Madrid. The site of the hill Cerro del Buest is occupied from the Bronze Age. In 192 before J.C., Romain based the city of Toletum (“strengthened population” in Latin). The city of Toledo is quoted by the historian Tite Live, who qualifies her as “strengthened town“.
During the big invasions of the 5th century, Toledo is plundered repeatedly from the year 400 by the Vandals, the Suèves and Alain. From the middle of VIe century, Toledo becomes the capital of the Visigoths; in 711, the last Visigothic sovereign, Rodrigue, is beaten by the Arabic conqueror Tariq ibn Ziyad in the battle of Guadalete and Toledo falls to the hands of the Muslims, integrated into the Caliphate omeyyade, then into the Emirate of Córdoba (755-929), and finally the Caliphate of Córdoba.
May 25th, 1085, in full Reconquista, Christians commanded by king Alphonse VI of Castile resume Toledo to the Muslims. Between the XIIth and XVIth centuries, the city becomes one of the capitals of Castile and one of the richest and most powerful cities of Spain. Emperor Charles V installs the seat of the Court there, and grants him the status of imperial and crowned city. In 1561, Madrid replaces Toledo in this function, by decision of Philippe II. His fast decline allowed the city to keep its heritage and made a city – museum presenting of vestiges of the diverse times.
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