Monaco is a 2,02 km² city- state, situated by the sea the Mediterranean Sea, along Côte d’Azur (French Riviera), in about twenty kilometers east of Nice. Founded by the Republic of Genoa, it went in 1297 in Grimaldi, after a help of François Grimaldi, said Malizia (François la Malice), Genoese patrician, who seized the fortress under a disguisement of franciscan monk. In 1911, Monaco becomes a constitutional monarchy. The state is managed since 2005 by the sovereign prince Albert II of Monaco, who makes of the family Grimaldi one of the most oldest ruling dynasties of the world.
This state is the second smallest state independent from the world, after Vatican. In 2008, Monaco counted less than 32 000 inhabitants. Tax haven, populated with millionaires, it is the most expensive second city of Europe, after London, in term of real estate. Practically completely urbanized, the principality of Monaco is divided between Monte Carlo, the Rock says Monaco City and grounds gained on the sea. The state is known for automobile Grand Prix of Monaco, the casino of Monte Carlo, the oceanographic Museum and the princely palace.
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